By: Robert W. Frenck, Jr., MD, FAAP
Salmonella bacteria cause more than a million infections each year in the United States. Most often, people get sick after eating food contaminated with
Salmonella. Their symptoms usually include diarrhea, fever and stomach cramps.
Salmonella illness can sometimes be severe enough to require a hospital stay.
Here's what families need to know about
Salmonella, how to recognize symptoms of infection and how to prevent it.
Who is most at risk from
Infections occur most often in infants and children younger than 4 years because their immune systems are still developing. Babies who are not breastfed are also more likely to get sick from
Salmonella. Infants may be exposed to
Salmonella if they eat contaminated food or come into contact with contaminated surfaces or sick family members.
Elderly people and those whose immune systems are weakened from certain medical conditions (such as diabetes, liver or kidney disease and cancer) or treatments also are at increased risk.
Salmonella bacteria usually spread to humans by animal products such as poultry, beef, fish, eggs and
dairy products. At times, though, other foods such as fruits, vegetables and bakery products have caused outbreaks. Most often, this happens when these foods were contaminated by contact with an animal product.
The bacteria can also be spread by drinking
contaminated water, as well as through contact with infected pets such as chicks, snakes,
turtles, lizards and other reptiles. Typhoid fever, which is also caused by
Salmonella, is only spread through contact with an infected person or an item contaminated by an infected person.
As of Aug. 18, 2023, 26 people in 11 states have been infected in an outbreak of Salmonella illness linked to small turtles. (More information here.) Turtles with shells less than 4 inches long are illegal to sell as pets in the U.S. Any turtle can carry Salmonella germs, but small turtles are a known source of illness---especially in young children. Pet turtles are not recommended for children younger than 5 years old, people with weakened immune systems and older adults. Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water right after touching turtles or anything in the area where they live or roam.
As of July 31, 2023, 16 people in 4 states have been infected in an outbreak of
illnesses linked to ground beef.
Public health officials are working to identify which products were contaminated. Any ground beef can have
. Food safety experts advise cooking all ground beef to an internal temperature of 160 F.
As of July 20, 2023, 690 people in 47 states and Puerto Rico have been infected with
linked to contact with backyard poultry.
Backyard poultry can carry
germs even if they look healthy and clean. Always wash hands after touching backyard poultry, their eggs or anything in the area where they live or roam.
Signs & symptoms of
Salmonella bacteria are best known for being a cause of
diarrhea. This type of illness, called gastroenteritis, typically happens after eating food that has been contaminated with
When your child has a
Salmonella infection that causes gastroenteritis, they may have symptoms such as:
While the overwhelming number of people with
Salmonella infection have gastroenteritis, the bacteria also can cause a variety of other disorders, including:
Bacteria in the blood (bacteremia)
Inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord (meningitis)
Inflammation of the bone (osteomyelitis)
Any recent travel?
Although very rare in the United States, travelers to India, Latin American, Africa and parts of the Asia may become infected with a strain of
Salmonella called typhoid. This is a long lasting febrile illness which if untreated can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. So, if you return from travel and have an unexplained fever, it is important to let your doctor know about your recent travels.
What to know about typhoid fever
Typhoid fever develops gradually. It's signs and symptoms may include fever, headache, loss of appetite, lethargy, abdominal pain, changes in mental status, an enlarged spleen and constipation or diarrhea.
The incubation period for gastroenteritis ranges from 6 to 48 hours, while typhoid fever has a longer incubation period of 3 to 60 days.
When to call your pediatrician
Contact your pediatrician if your child shows no improvement within 2 to 3 days of symptoms appearing or if they have blood in their stools or shows signs of dehydration (such as an absence of tears when crying, a decline in urination).
Your pediatrician can test for
Salmonella organisms from cultures of stool, blood, or urine that are examined in the laboratory.
If your child only has
Salmonella-associated diarrhea, the treatment is supportive (fluids and rest). Antibiotics are not prescribed as they do not make your child get better faster and actually may increase the length of time your child has
Salmonella in the stool. An exception is infants under 3 months of age, because they have an increased risk of the infection spreading from the intestine to the blood and other organs in the body. However, when the infection is found in the blood, brain, bone or other organs, antibiotics are needed.
A child with severe diarrhea may get very dehydrated and need intravenous (IV) fluids or extra fluids given by mouth.
How long does a Salmonella infection last?
Salmonella gastrointestinal infections last for 4 to 7 days and clear up on their own without treatment.
How to prevent
Salmonella infections can often be prevented by practicing good hygiene techniques during food preparation, as well as regular
hand washing. Be sure to thoroughly cook eggs, poultry and ground beef. Hands should always be washed after playing with pets, especially lizards and pet turtles.
If your child has a problem with their immune system: Avoid reptiles used as pets, such as lizards and snakes. Children with
sickle cell anemia are at risk for
Salmonella infection of the bones. Families of these children should avoid having reptiles and amphibians as pets.
If you plan travel to an area where typhoid exists: Make an appointment with your doctor (preferably 1-2 months before travel) to discuss vaccination against the infection.
See Precautions for International Travel: Information for Parents.
About Dr. Frenck
Robert W. Frenck, Jr, MD, FAAP, is board-certified in general pediatrics and pediatric infectious diseases. He practices at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and is a Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine in Cincinnati, Ohio. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, Dr. Frenck is a member of both the Section on Uniformed Services (SOUS) and the Section on Infectious Diseases (SOID).